This page contains enriched content visible when JavaScript is enabled or by clicking here. Skip to main content

Physical Therapy & Exercise: Evidence-Based Medicine & Systematic Reviews

PICO is a handy mnemonic for the key parts of a clinical question. Patient/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome. Sometimes resources about PICO use the term PICOT or PICOTTS instead. The additional letters stand for: Timeframe ; Type of study ; Setting

What is a systematic review? says "A systematic review attempts to identify, appraise and synthesize all the empirical evidence that meets pre-specified eligibility criteria to answer a given research question." --

How to appraise a clinical trial, by Dr. Eric Strong, Stanford University. The three videos below provide an overview of how to read and critically evaluate a clinical trial, prior to applying the information to your patient. Included is a discussion of the importance of randomization, controls, blinding, allocation concealment, proper sample size, and more.

Please note when you choose a database from this list, it closes the research guide page, and redirects you to the database page.  To keep the research guide "open" while you access your chosen database, please hold the CTRL key down while you click the database link.

Just what is "Grey" literature?  The 4th International Conference on Grey Literature (Washington D.C. : 1999) defined grey literature thusly: "That which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers." 

"Grey Literature is any literature that has not been published through traditional means.  It is often excluded from large databases and other mainstream sources." --