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Research Ethics/Article Retraction

Featured Books/Ebooks

Fraud in the Lab

From a journalist and former lab researcher, a penetrating investigation of the explosion in cases of scientific fraud and the factors behind it.

'Percentage' Plagiarism

"Falsehood flies, and truth comes limping after it..." -- Jonathan Swift

"Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." -- U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Office of Research Integrity

"The science community generally believes that the violation of research integrity is rare. Built upon this belief, the scientific system takes little effort to examine the trustworthiness of research... Emerging evidence has suggested that research misconduct is far more common than we normally perceive." -- Wentao Li, Lyle C Gurrin, Ben W Mol, Violation of research integrity principles occur more often than we think, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 2021,

“The ways to commit some kind of misconduct are almost becoming industrialized or mechanized...”  -- Ivan Oransky, Bad Brains blog post by Chris Stokel-Walker, 8/30/2022

"Anything from a source other than your own brain needs attribution." -- Sarah Garrecht Gassen,, 5/16/2021

“We all rely on each other in this work. You can legitimately borrow your neighbor’s tools of art to create; after all, a brush bears no copyright. But you can’t steal their painted canvas and call it your own.” -- Jake Hall 

See Also: Research Ethics/Publishing Practices - Diploma Mills/Fraudulent Degrees ; Plagiarism of student work section in this guide

"Duplicate publication occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of his or her own published work without providing the appropriate references.  This can range from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals, to only adding a small amount of new data to a previously published paper." -- http://

"Salami publication or segmented publication is a distinct form of redundant publication which is usually characterized by similarity of hypothesis, methodology or results but not text similarity. These aspects of publications are not objectively detected by software applications and therefore present a serious threat to publication ethics." --

"It is important to ensure that research work is only published once.  If it is published more than once, the scientific literature can be unjustifiably weighted by the appearance that one study has been replicated.  It might also mean that the study is inadvertently entered twice into a meta-analysis, for example, or cause problems in systems which use the number of publications to assess an individual's or an institute's research output." --